Jean-Louis Etienne
Jean-Louis Etienne - Alone on Ice pack
How man copes with the cold
Communications - Safety - Emergency assistance
Jean-Louis Etienne - Atmosphere & weather
The earth’s atmosphere  
Weather forecasting and modeling  
The climate and the north pole  
The solar energy balance  
The greenhouse effect  
Jean-Louis Etienne - Arctic ice
The ice pack: frozen saltwater  
Ice pack observation satellites  
Icebergs : frozen seawater  
The arctic ice: climate archives  
Ice ages and landscapes  
Jean-Louis Etienne - The ocean and marine life
The Arctic Ocean and the ocean currents  
Genesis of the arctic ocean  
Arctic plankton  
Oceanic biodiversity and the food chain  
Whales and other cetaceans  
Seals and walruses  
Jean-Louis Etienne - Life on land
Arctic flora  
Arctic fauna  
Polar bears  
Birds of the arctic  
Evolution of species and climate  
Jean-Louis Etienne - History and geography
Geography of the Arctic regions  
Geographic North Pole and magnetic North Pole  
Who owns the arctic ?  
Exploring the deep north  
The Inuit people  
The other peoples of the deep North  
The Arctic today  
Jean-Louis Etienne - Man's impact
Man and arctic biodiversity  
Pollution in the arctic  
Climate warming: the natural cycles  
The increase in the greenhouse effect  
The impact of global warming  
Life on land
Evolution of species and climate

Ice ages and warmer periods: how life changes
Arctic flora and fauna are all well adapted to their extreme environment. Not only this but the climate in the Deep North has changed over the millennia, with a succession of ice ages (glaciation) and warmer periods, and Arctic flora and fauna have had to display a remarkable ability to adapt to changing climate patterns.

In colder periods, the forests pull back
About 7 million years ago, at the end of the Miocene, the climate in the Arctic regions became colder. As result, the abundant forests of broad-leaved species and conifers that covered much of Siberia and Alaska were gradually replaced by taiga. To the north of the forests, the tundra was born – a new and harsher milieu to which the species that inhabited the taiga and the high mountains simply had to adapt.

Reindeer and musk ox: different origins
The reindeer belongs to the cervidae, but the other members of this family today live in wooded regions. Biologists think the reindeer is descended from a cervida that lived in the boreal forests and then had to adapt to the open tundra terrain. The musk ox, on the other hand, is a member of the bovidae family, typically animals that live in exposed milieus (steppes, meadows, savannah). Its ancestors undoubtedly migrated from the steppes of Central Asia. Most of the Arctic animals originally inhabited the steppes of the forests.

Mammoth, Woolly rhino & Co
When Prehistoric Man roamed the Earth, some 10,000 years ago, he had to share the Northern Hemisphere and its harsh climate with mammoths, woolly rhinoceroses, sabre-toothed tigers and other large mammals. Biologists estimate that during that period some 30 to 40 species became extinct, possibly because of over-hunting but more probably because they were too slow to adapt to climate change.

Jean-Louis Etienne
Jean-Louis Etienne
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