Jean-Louis Etienne
Jean-Louis Etienne - Alone on Ice pack
How man copes with the cold
Communications - Safety - Emergency assistance
Jean-Louis Etienne - Atmosphere & weather
The earth’s atmosphere  
Weather forecasting and modeling  
The climate and the north pole  
The solar energy balance  
The greenhouse effect  
Jean-Louis Etienne - Arctic ice
The ice pack: frozen saltwater  
Ice pack observation satellites  
Icebergs : frozen seawater  
The arctic ice: climate archives  
Ice ages and landscapes  
Jean-Louis Etienne - The ocean and marine life
The Arctic Ocean and the ocean currents  
Genesis of the arctic ocean  
Arctic plankton  
Oceanic biodiversity and the food chain  
Whales and other cetaceans  
Seals and walruses  
Jean-Louis Etienne - Life on land
Arctic flora  
Arctic fauna  
Polar bears  
Birds of the arctic  
Evolution of species and climate  
Jean-Louis Etienne - History and geography
Geography of the Arctic regions  
Geographic North Pole and magnetic North Pole  
Who owns the arctic ?  
Exploring the deep north  
The Inuit people  
The other peoples of the deep North  
The Arctic today  
Jean-Louis Etienne - Man's impact
Man and arctic biodiversity  
Pollution in the arctic  
Climate warming: the natural cycles  
The increase in the greenhouse effect  
The impact of global warming  
Alone on Ice pack
Communications - Safety - Emergency assistance

Communications via Iridium
The geostationary satellites used for communication purposes (telephone, Internet, television) are placed in orbit over the equator and are not accessible from the poles. So in the polar regions, communication is via the low-speed (64 Kbit) Iridium satellite system. For meteorological transmissions we use an EADS

Distress beacons
For safety purposes, the balloon carries a Sarsat distress beacon. If it is activated, the beacon sends out a distress signal giving the position of the balloon. The signal is picked up by a monitoring satellite that relays the distress signal to the base camp. Telephone communication with the balloon is always possible too.

Emergency assistance
In the area around the Geographic North Pole, emergency assistance can be provided by MI-8 helicopters based at Russia's Borneo station that is set up every year in April close to the Pole. In the area around the Magnetic North Pole, assistance can be provided by Twin Otter aircraft based at Resolute Bay (Canada), and in the event of an emergency in the Beaufort Sea Twin Otters can reach us from Inuvik on the Mackenzie River delta or from Prudhoe Bay in Alaska.

Transmission - sécurité - secours
Satellite phones allow travellers to stay in touch even from the most remote regions.
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