Jean-Louis Etienne
Jean-Louis Etienne - Alone on Ice pack
How man copes with the cold
Communications - Safety - Emergency assistance
Jean-Louis Etienne - Atmosphere & weather
The earth’s atmosphere  
Weather forecasting and modeling  
The climate and the north pole  
The solar energy balance  
The greenhouse effect  
Jean-Louis Etienne - Arctic ice
The ice pack: frozen saltwater  
Ice pack observation satellites  
Icebergs : frozen seawater  
The arctic ice: climate archives  
Ice ages and landscapes  
Jean-Louis Etienne - The ocean and marine life
The Arctic Ocean and the ocean currents  
Genesis of the arctic ocean  
Arctic plankton  
Oceanic biodiversity and the food chain  
Whales and other cetaceans  
Seals and walruses  
Jean-Louis Etienne - Life on land
Arctic flora  
Arctic fauna  
Polar bears  
Birds of the arctic  
Evolution of species and climate  
Jean-Louis Etienne - History and geography
Geography of the Arctic regions  
Geographic North Pole and magnetic North Pole  
Who owns the arctic ?  
Exploring the deep north  
The Inuit people  
The other peoples of the deep North  
The Arctic today  
Jean-Louis Etienne - Man's impact
Man and arctic biodiversity  
Pollution in the arctic  
Climate warming: the natural cycles  
The increase in the greenhouse effect  
The impact of global warming  
The ocean and marine life
Genesis of the arctic ocean

A jigsaw puzzle of tectonic plates
The Earth’s crust is made up of about 15 thick and rigid plates that are constantly moving around. Very slowly, these “tectonic” plates (whose fault lines are mostly ridges on the sea bed) grind along against each other, move apart or collide together making one slide under or over the next. This geological ballet triggers earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.

Arctic Ocean: a sea bed opening under the ice
A map of the sea bed shows that the mid-Atlantic Ridge separating the American and Eurasian plates extends right up into the Arctic Ocean. But very little is known about the history of the Earth’s crust in that region because conditions in the Arctic make geological and geophysical studies very hard to carry out.

The story still continues…
Some 500 million years ago, a huge ocean covered the whole of the northern half of the Earth, meaning that Spitsbergen and Greenland were where the Equator is. Between 150 and 200 million years later, both land masses had moved as far north as the Tropic, and by 100 million years ago Spitsbergen was nearly up to the Arctic Circle. The pieces of the Arctic puzzle were slowly being put in place.

The birth of the Arctic Ocean
About 50 million years ago, the Atlantic Basin continued to open up towards the North, pushing Spitsbergen across alongside Greenland. In this way, the Arctic Basin split apart and the Arctic Ocean was born. By 20 million years ago, all the land masses were in practically the same positions as today. But the movement continues, slowly moving America and Northern Europe further apart.


Atmosphere & weather
Atmosphere & weather
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