Jean-Louis Etienne
Jean-Louis Etienne - Alone on Ice pack
How man copes with the cold
Communications - Safety - Emergency assistance
Jean-Louis Etienne - Atmosphere & weather
The earth’s atmosphere  
Weather forecasting and modeling  
The climate and the north pole  
The solar energy balance  
The greenhouse effect  
Jean-Louis Etienne - Arctic ice
The ice pack: frozen saltwater  
Ice pack observation satellites  
Icebergs : frozen seawater  
The arctic ice: climate archives  
Ice ages and landscapes  
Jean-Louis Etienne - The ocean and marine life
The Arctic Ocean and the ocean currents  
Genesis of the arctic ocean  
Arctic plankton  
Oceanic biodiversity and the food chain  
Whales and other cetaceans  
Seals and walruses  
Jean-Louis Etienne - Life on land
Arctic flora  
Arctic fauna  
Polar bears  
Birds of the arctic  
Evolution of species and climate  
Jean-Louis Etienne - History and geography
Geography of the Arctic regions  
Geographic North Pole and magnetic North Pole  
Who owns the arctic ?  
Exploring the deep north  
The Inuit people  
The other peoples of the deep North  
The Arctic today  
Jean-Louis Etienne - Man's impact
Man and arctic biodiversity  
Pollution in the arctic  
Climate warming: the natural cycles  
The increase in the greenhouse effect  
The impact of global warming  
Man's impact
Man and arctic biodiversity

The Arctic: habitats found nowhere else in the world
The Arctic includes a variety of habitats – mountains, lakes, rivers, estuaries, ice packs, ocean – but each of them is subject to strong winds and extreme cold as well as a very particular pattern of seasons. Throughout the Arctic, life exists and grows thanks to unique ecological and physiological adaptations that are a fascinating subject of study.

Very special forms of life
In the Deep North, there are fewer species than in warmer regions (apart from a few plant groups such as willows, and certain birds and insects), but there are often large numbers of individuals present in each case: huge colonies of seabirds, herds of reindeer and groups of lemmings, etc. The flora and fauna of the Arctic are genetically quite varied, and as such they contribute to the biological diversity of planet Earth.

A fragile milieu
Humans and their various activities – fishing, hunting, mining, oil production and now tourism – have been invading the Arctic in increasing numbers for more than a century now. And our presence has had an impact: stocks of some species of fish are diminishing, heavy vehicles have destroyed soil cover, food chains (polar bears, cetaceans, Man) have been polluted, etc. And of course global warming is endangering polar ecosystems.

Conserving our natural heritage
A number of initiatives – nature reserves, lists of protected species (whales, seabirds, seals, etc.), international conventions and programmes, fishing quotas – are now under way to try to safeguard the Arctic. After all, the Arctic does not just provide humans with resources (food, energy, medicines, etc.), its magnificent landscapes also satisfy deep emotional needs (arts and crafts, native beliefs, etc.).


Jean-Louis Etienne
Jean-Louis Etienne
Jean-Louis Etienne
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