Jean-Louis Etienne
Jean-Louis Etienne - Alone on Ice pack
How man copes with the cold
Communications - Safety - Emergency assistance
Jean-Louis Etienne - Atmosphere & weather
The earth’s atmosphere  
Weather forecasting and modeling  
The climate and the north pole  
The solar energy balance  
The greenhouse effect  
Jean-Louis Etienne - Arctic ice
The ice pack: frozen saltwater  
Ice pack observation satellites  
Icebergs : frozen seawater  
The arctic ice: climate archives  
Ice ages and landscapes  
Jean-Louis Etienne - The ocean and marine life
The Arctic Ocean and the ocean currents  
Genesis of the arctic ocean  
Arctic plankton  
Oceanic biodiversity and the food chain  
Whales and other cetaceans  
Seals and walruses  
Jean-Louis Etienne - Life on land
Arctic flora  
Arctic fauna  
Polar bears  
Birds of the arctic  
Evolution of species and climate  
Jean-Louis Etienne - History and geography
Geography of the Arctic regions  
Geographic North Pole and magnetic North Pole  
Who owns the arctic ?  
Exploring the deep north  
The Inuit people  
The other peoples of the deep North  
The Arctic today  
Jean-Louis Etienne - Man's impact
Man and arctic biodiversity  
Pollution in the arctic  
Climate warming: the natural cycles  
The increase in the greenhouse effect  
The impact of global warming  
History and geography
The Arctic today

Living in the Deep North today
Today, more than 2 million people live north of the Arctic Circle. Towns have grown up near mining facilities, along the rivers and on the coasts. But because the Arctic climate is so harsh, very few people from further south settle permanently in the Arctic. Usually they move back to warmer zones after a few years.

Natural resources under the ice
Despite the extremely harsh climate, engineers, miners and a host of other workers spare no effort or imagination to extract from this inhospitable landscape all the varied riches in the earth and the sea: oil, gas, coal, iron, copper, nickel, gold, diamonds, etc. However, for the people who live there, and tourists as well, the Arctic landscapes are also a source of food, of natural beauty and the freedom of wide-open spaces…

Where two worlds collide
The people who live in the Deep North all belong to one sovereign state or another, states that colonised the zone in the past and within which these native peoples form a minority. The cultural and economic shock of contact with the “modern” world has in many cases had a dramatic impact on their society (alcoholism, crime, suicide) and in all cases has affected their lifestyle, customs, beliefs and traditional activities.

Towards sustainable development
Little by little, the people of the Arctic have been joining forces so as to be better represented on national and international bodies. They are claiming and obtaining a larger share of the revenues derived from natural resources within their territories and some have even gained a measure of autonomy (Danish Greenland, Canadian Nunavut). But the survival of their cultural identity is closely dependent on respect for their fragile environment.

Jean-Louis Etienne
Jean-Louis Etienne
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