Jean-Louis Etienne
Jean-Louis Etienne - Alone on Ice pack
How man copes with the cold
Communications - Safety - Emergency assistance
Jean-Louis Etienne - Atmosphere & weather
The earth’s atmosphere  
Weather forecasting and modeling  
The climate and the north pole  
The solar energy balance  
The greenhouse effect  
Jean-Louis Etienne - Arctic ice
The ice pack: frozen saltwater  
Ice pack observation satellites  
Icebergs : frozen seawater  
The arctic ice: climate archives  
Ice ages and landscapes  
Jean-Louis Etienne - The ocean and marine life
The Arctic Ocean and the ocean currents  
Genesis of the arctic ocean  
Arctic plankton  
Oceanic biodiversity and the food chain  
Whales and other cetaceans  
Seals and walruses  
Jean-Louis Etienne - Life on land
Arctic flora  
Arctic fauna  
Polar bears  
Birds of the arctic  
Evolution of species and climate  
Jean-Louis Etienne - History and geography
Geography of the Arctic regions  
Geographic North Pole and magnetic North Pole  
Who owns the arctic ?  
Exploring the deep north  
The Inuit people  
The other peoples of the deep North  
The Arctic today  
Jean-Louis Etienne - Man's impact
Man and arctic biodiversity  
Pollution in the arctic  
Climate warming: the natural cycles  
The increase in the greenhouse effect  
The impact of global warming  
History and geography
Who owns the arctic ?

Two million people live around the ice pack
The land inside the Arctic Circle is far from deserted. There are aplenty of human beings, animals and plants that have learned to live in these harsh climes. Today, nearly 2 million people live permanently inside the Arctic Circle; indeed, Man has lived there since prehistoric times.

Sovereign states in the Arctic
Six countries border the Arctic seas: Canada, the United States, Russia, Iceland, Norway and Denmark via Greenland). There are also two territories there with special status: Svalbard (administered by Norway) and Nunavut (an autonomous territory inhabited by Canada’s Inuit people. Finland and Sweden lie within the Arctic Circle but do not reach the 10°C isotherm.

A coveted ocean of ice
The Arctic Ocean contains great riches, not just fish and crustaceans but also hydrocarbons and coastal mineral ores. Little is known about the extent of these resources, and the harsh climate makes them difficult to exploit, but they are seen as a major geopolitical issue by countries in the zone.

Dividing up the Arctic Ocean
A number of solutions have been proposed for settling the disputes between rival claimants to the Arctic’s spoils: “pie slices” extending national borders right to the Pole; Arctic borders equidistant from coastlines; Exclusive Economic Zones extending out 200 nautical miles from coasts; Canadian Non-Pollution Zone; strategic border between the United States and Russia at the Bering Strait; but there are still a number of major disputes about maritime territory.
Russia, Denmark and Canada are currently trying to prove that their respective continental shelves extend beyond the standard 200-nautical-mile EEZ limit and are demanding that their EEZs be fixed at 350 nautical miles from the coast, as provided for by the international law of the sea.


Jean-Louis Etienne
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